An Introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics, 1st Edition by Wolfgang Demtröder

By Wolfgang Demtröder

This advent to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been constructed over the past centuries by means of many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical part by way of the creation of quantum physics to the enough description of micro-particles.

It illustrates the wave version of debris via many examples and indicates the bounds of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its power for spectroscopy is printed in additional aspect and specifically lasers as glossy spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra thoroughly.

Many examples and issues of suggestions may still set off the reader to an severe energetic cooperation.

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1 Brownian Motion The biologist and medical doctor Robert Brown (1773– 1858) discovered in 1827 that small particles suspended in liquids performed small irregular movements, which can be viewed under a microscope. Although he first thought that these movements were caused by small living bacteria, he soon found out that the movement could also be observed for inorganic particles that are definitely not alive. The observation can be explained if one assumes that the particles are permanently hit by fast moving atoms or molecules coming from statistically distributed directions (Fig.

2 Atomic Size Estimation from Transport Coefficients When the characteristic quantities of a gas such as mass density, energy density or momentum are not constant over the volume of the gas, the gradients of these quantities cause transport phenomena that finally lead to equilibrium at a homogeneous distribution if the gradient is not maintained by external influences. For density gradients, diffusion takes place where mass is transported, for temperature gradients, heat conduction occurs where energy is transported and for velocity gradients, the momentum of the molecules is transferred.

Can One See Atoms? where the distribution function f(ξ) is defined as 1 f(ξ) dξ = n(ξ) dξ . 36) the number N+ of particles moving through a unit area in the plane x = 0 into the +x-direction is larger than the corresponding number N− in −x-direction. Therefore, the net particle diffusion flux through a unit area in the plane x = 0 is (Fig. 38) eˆ x . jdiff = ∆t Out of all n(x) dx particles within the volume dV = A dx centered around the plane x = −xi with unit area A, only those particles with an elongation ξ > x1 can pass through the plane x = 0.

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