By N. Housley
This number of essays through ecu and American students addresses the altering nature and allure of crusading throughout the interval which prolonged from the conflict of Nicopolis in 1396 to the conflict of Mohács in 1526. individuals concentrate on key features of the topic. One is advancements within the crusading message and the language within which it used to be framed. those have been caused in part by way of the looks of recent enemies, in particular the Ottoman Turks, and partially via transferring spiritual values and cutting edge currents of idea inside of Catholic Europe. the opposite point is the big variety of responses which the papacy's repeated calls to holy struggle encountered in a Christian neighborhood which was once more and more heterogeneous in personality. This assortment represents a considerable contribution to the examine of the Later Crusades and of Renaissance Europe.
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Extra resources for Crusading in the Fifteenth Century: Message and Impact
13 Aeneas, with his unrivalled knowledge of 42 Crusading in the Fifteenth Century European politics and his diplomatic finesse, seemed the right man to keep the crusade momentum going. But would his position as pope change Aeneas fundamentally as well as his approach to the Turks? The name he chose upon election sends a mixed message. Pope Pius I (c. 142–c. 155) had been a staunch defender of orthodoxy against heretics like Marcion. Perhaps Aeneas wanted to imitate his defence of the faith. 14 As his name choice provides no clear answers, let us look to his actions regarding crusade.
Had Constantine stayed in Rome, the empire and its subjects would have been able to withstand any challenge. As it was, the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (on whose watch Islam emerged) reigned in a place from where neither the West nor the East could be ruled, neither Italy nor Asia could be saved. Biglia saw the rise of Islam as a complex phenomenon, part religious heresy, part political rebellion. Its success was the mirror image of 20 Crusading in the Fifteenth Century Rome’s failure. The unruly Arabs, ‘enemies of the empire and the faith’, rebelled against Byzantine rule, rejecting ‘both the imperial yoke and religion’.
The atrocities at Constantinople are also listed, as well as the Turks’ continuing destruction of churches and blasphemy against Christ. Pius even discusses the origins of Islam in great detail, discrediting it as a sect of pleasure and violence founded by a charlatan, in sharp contrast to the righteousness and purity of Christianity. Another religious theme is the power of prayer. Here Pius cites the biblical examples of Moses and Judith among others, as well as the more recent, miraculous victory of Christian forces at Belgrade.