Crusade, Commerce and Culture by Aziz S. Atiya

By Aziz S. Atiya

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Symptomatic Three written accounts in the Carolingian era are worthy of note, namely, the pilgrimages of Fidelis (c. 750-60) , of Bernard the Monk (867-70) , and of Fortmund (c. 870-74) The . of these personalities is probably of Irish origin, and he known to have visited and described the sacred sites of both first is Egypt and the Holy Land. The second was a monk of the Mont Saint Michel in Brittany, who undertook the voyage to the East with a certain Stephen from Spain and one Theudemund, probably a Frank.

Investing the strongest Turkish general with in Western Asia The story of the Turks goes as far back as the the last great successor reign of Caliph al-Mu'tasim (833-42) , the employment of introduced who of Harun al-Rashid, to free himself from in order his Turkish slaves as bodyguard Arab the influence of the aristocracy. Like the barbarian were engaged by the later Roman emperors legionaries who all similar for a somewhat purpose, the Turks finally wrested hands. power from the Caliph's One of the Turkish clans or tribes, the Saljuqs, under the Bagdad itself in 1055 and after invading Persia, Tughril Beg wrested the title of the from sultan for himself impotent Caliph.

Finally, Caesaria succumbed in 640, eliminating Byzantine rule from the whole of greater Syria, Palestine included. On the Persian side, the total collapse of the ancient pass at the hands of the virile Muslim Arabs after the two decisive battles of al-Qadisiya in 736 and Nehawand in 642. Fleeing for life with his royal Sassanid Empire came to treasure, the unhappy Sassanid monarch, Yazdagird III, was murdered in a hut outside the northern city of Marw by one of his subjects, a poor miller who coveted his old sovereign's gold.

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