By Anne Munz
Thanks to the large development of neuroscience during the last few a long time, we will be able to now visual display unit the passage of preliminary stimulations to definite issues within the mind. even with those findings, even though, subjective cognizance nonetheless is still an unsolved secret. This quantity exposes neuroscience and cognitive technology to philosophical research and proposes that we predict of our wide awake states of brain as a composite phenomenon such as 3 layers: neuronal occasions, somatic markers, and particular awareness. whereas physics and chemistry can and feature been effectively hired to explain the causal relation among the 1st layers, the extra step to articulate attention is only interpretative and issues to the preponderant significance of language.
Language is key for the transformation of inchoate, now not very informative somatic markers and mere moods into complete attention and appraised emotion. Munz makes use of literary examples to shift our figuring out of the brain clear of computational versions and to teach how eloquence approximately our states of brain is synthetic instead of triggered. He firmly rejects the efforts of either Freud and non-Freudian psychologists to discover a systematic reason behind such manufacture and to make a technology out of the eloquence of folks psychology. in its place he argues that the various methods eloquence is being synthetic to rework somatic markers into wakeful states of brain are most sensible accounted for when it comes to Wittgenstein's belief of language video games. This quantity demanding situations most modern considering awareness and brain and may attract philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and linguists.
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Extra resources for Critique of Impure Reason: An Essay on Neurons, Somatic Markers, and Consciousness
Again, this theory has an element of truth in it, except that it sees the link between markers and emotions as more or less determinate so that one could, at a pinch, predict from the neurology of the marker what the resulting emotion would be likely to be. If it is true that the resulting emotion we are conscious of is no more than a free interpretation of the marker, we must conclude that the James-Lange view of the nature of that link is false. Unlike William James, Damasio does not mistake the somatic marker which precedes articulated consciousness for the real thing.
In prehuman animals this marker is sufficiently unequivocal to trigger a suitable response. Not so in humans. We humans, too, have an amygdala which operates as it does in THE SILENCE OF THE NEURONS 17 other animals, but the somatic marker it generates under certain conditions is jostling side by side with markers generated by our large frontal lobes. These other markers inhibit the amygdala-generated markers and any direct response they may trigger because they confuse whatever it is that comes from the amygdala.
If one examines his page 134, one gets the impression that, in Damasio's mind, far from referring to different types of events, they all amount much to the same thing, even though he distinguishes primary from secondary emotions. On the same page he also writes that the emotion is accompanied neurobiologically by the somatic marker. A more analytical look would, on the contrary, lead to the conclusion that consciousness of the marker as a specific emotion follows the marker. As it is, Damasio obscures the importance of his discovery of the role of the somatic marker as the interface between experience and a verbally specified emotion one is conscious of.