By James Dreier
Contemporary Debates in ethical Theory good points pairs of newly commissioned essays by way of the various top theorists operating within the box this day.
- Brings jointly clean debates at the such a lot arguable concerns in ethical theory
- Questions contain: Are ethical necessities derived from cause? How challenging is morality? Are virtues the correct place to begin for ethical theorizing?
- Lively debate structure sharply defines the problems, and paves the way in which for extra discussion.
- Will function an available creation to the main themes in modern ethical idea, whereas additionally taking pictures the mind's eye philosophers.
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Extra info for Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory
The ends do not always justify the means. 28 Against Maximizing Act Consequentialism If core consequentialism is true, then any action with maximally good consequences (in a given choice situation) is permissible. The main argument in favor of this claim is the following: P1: An action is morally permissible if it is best supported by insistent moral reasons for action. P2: The value of consequences is always an insistent moral reason for action. P3: The value of consequences is the only insistent moral reason for action.
Thus, an outcome in which a constraint is violated is always worse (agent-neutrally) than an outcome in which the constraint is not violated – even if large numbers of people are much better off when the constraint is violated. A theory like this might hold that it is better to have one violation now rather than five later (this is sometimes called ‘utilitarianism [more strictly: consequentialism] of rights’). To block this, suppose further that the theory of value holds that there is a lexical priority of importance to earlier times with respect to constraint violation.
A second issue concerns whether the rights are choice-protecting or interest-protecting. The issue concerns the nature of the requisite respect that rights require. I’m inclined to think that psychologically autonomous agents have (mainly) choiceprotecting rights and non-autonomous but sentient beings (such as young children and certain animals) have interest-protecting rights, but we need not resolve this issue here. All we need is the existence of some kind of right. A third issue concerns whether the rights are absolute or conditional in certain ways.