By Chang-Ho Lee, Joy Laskar
Read or Download Compact Ku-band transmitter design for satellite communication applications: from system analysis to hardware implementation, Edition: 1st PDF
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Additional resources for Compact Ku-band transmitter design for satellite communication applications: from system analysis to hardware implementation, Edition: 1st
The charge density can be controlled by the gate voltage. Because the charge in Chapter 4 36 this layer has a very high mobility, high-frequency operation and very low noise are possible. HEMTs require specialized fabrication techniques, such as MBE, and thus are very expensive to manufacture . HEMT heterojunctions are invariably realized with III-V semiconductors; AlGaAs and InGaAs are common. HEMTs are used for mixers in the same way as conventional GaAs FETs. Because the gate I/V characteristics of a HEMT are generally more strongly nonlinear than that of a MESFET, HEMT mixers usually have greater intermodulation distortion than FETs.
The two most common types of doubly balanced diode mixers are the ring mixer and the star mixer. The ring mixer is more amenable to low- 42 Chapter 4 frequency applications, in which transformers can be used. The star mixer is used primarily in microwave applications, because it is more amenable to operation with microwave baluns. There is no significant difference in the properties or performance of these mixer types. 11 shows the most common configuration for a doubly balanced diode ring mixer.
The noise figure of an active mixer depends strongly on the characteristics of the design. 8 Spurious Response A mixer converts a RF (or IF) signal to an IF (or RF) signal. Considering the harmonics of both the RF and LO, the resulting set of frequencies is 32 Chapter 4 where m and n are integers. If a RF signal creates an in-band IF response other than the desired one, it is called a spurious response. Usually the RF, IF, and LO frequency ranges are selected carefully to avoid spurious responses, and filters are used to reject out-of-band RF signals that may cause in-band IF responses.