By J Shore
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Extra info for Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties Volume 2: Auxiliaries
Similarly, a more plausible product in which 85% of the molecule is accounted for by the hydrophilic portion has an HLB of 85/5 = 17. The ICI Americas Inc. 1 (total relative molecular mass = 1226, of which 1044 is contributed by the hydrophilic portion) . 1) As explained earlier, however, the actual constitution of a surfactant rarely conforms to its nominal structure. Consequently the theoretical method of calculation is of limited utility, practical methods being more reliable. The HLB value may be determined directly by analysis or by comparison with a range of surfactants of known HLB values.
Another hydroxycarboxylate, gluconic acid, is especially useful in caustic soda solution and as a general-purpose sequestering agent. Clearly, the efficiency of sequestering action must be optimised for a specific set of conditions. Thought needs to be given especially to the pH of the system and to whether broad-spectrum or specific sequestering is required. The extent of knowledge of the tracemetal ions present will determine whether a precise addition or an arbitrary excess of agent is appropriate.
5 provides a very good illustration of the high sensitivity of the conditional stability constant (Kc) to the pH of the system, using the same four aminopolycarboxylates in the presence of iron(II) and iron(III). The pH-related stability constant is known as the conditional stability constant, log K c. 9. pmd 516 15/11/02, 15:44 SEQUESTERING AGENTS 517 It should not be overlooked that stability constants can be affected significantly by the presence of electrolytes. 0N KCl. 5. Generalisations like these can be misleading, however, since efficiency varies from one metal ion to another at different pH values for each sequestering agent.