Chemistry of Modern Papermaking by Cornel Hagiopol

By Cornel Hagiopol

Chemistry of recent Papermaking provides a chemist's viewpoint at the papermaking technique. With approximately three% of the mass of a paper product invested in water-soluble chemical substances, paper makers can modify the rate and potency of the method, reduce and reuse surplus fabrics, and differentiate a paper product as required through particular clients. With learn and improvement scattered throughout educational journals or the proprietary info of a number of businesses, the fashionable paper maker calls for a one-stop source for the overall photo of the paper chemical compounds natural chemistry.

The striking effectiveness of chemical substances at very low concentrations is an engaging subject in paper chemistry. Chemistry of recent Papermaking is an in depth choice of info combining the natural chemistry of paper with its capability functions. inside of every one bankruptcy, paper chemical compounds are equipped in accordance with their chemical constitution. After an advent and short historical past, the e-book explores the papermaking technique, retention aids, transitority rainy power resins, rainy energy resins, dry energy resins, inner sizing brokers, creping adhesives and softeners, and chemical compounds for paper floor therapy. Uniquely, patents and clinical articles are incorporated in virtually equivalent quantity one of the 3400 references.

Chemistry of contemporary Papermaking makes a speciality of the chemistry in the back of each one program, on what has been performed, and on what should be performed. by no means sooner than has a publication analytically prepared and lucidly defined such an expansive selection of info from either the patent and medical literature. This synthesis is completed not just via diligent paintings, but additionally via years of commercial adventure.

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The distribution of newly formed amine groups may not be the same during the Hofmann degradation of two polyacrylamides with two different molecular weights (104 and 106) [451]. Lower molecular weight polyacrylamide reacts much faster than higher molecular polymers [443]. However, Tanaka et al. [450] report that cationic charges created through a Hofmann reaction of a polyacrylamide, and a fluorescent labeling through a polymer analogous reaction, result—after multiple re-precipitations—in a homogeneous distribution of the functionalities [450].

In what is to follow, some examples of cursory interpretations of experimental data and their effect on the final conclusions published in technical literature are presented. The water contact angle is considered as a measure of the hydrophobic character of the sized sheet. The pH of the testing water is very important [513]. 4 Experimental errors in paper dry-strength measurements. missing, which may result in confusing conclusions. In rare cases, when the standard deviation (SD) was published for the contact angle [514], a value of more than 10% should be a sign that special attention needs to be paid to the statistical interpretation of data.

Maleic anhydride (about 1%) is reacted with pulp at 65°C–115°C [307] and moisture content <5%. Modified pulp shows higher surface anionic charges. The water content in the nitric acid has a strong effect on the degree of substitution of nitrated cellulose [308]. Esterification with organic or inorganic acids is retarded by the water formation, and, therefore, it must be removed from the system to force the reaction to completion [110]. The transesterification reaction with a methyl ester is an easier reaction [309] because methanol has a lower boiling point.

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