By Steven S. Zumdahl
Authors Steven and Susan Zumdahl provide the entire components teachers want for his or her common chemistry path. they carry a conceptual method of chemistry and combine problem-solving talents all through, assisting scholars transition from thought to perform. a robust emphasis on versions, real-world purposes, and visible studying prevails during the textual content. The 7th variation seamlessly integrates the strengths of the Zumdahl procedure via a finished and interwoven print and expertise application. more suitable pattern routines, on-line homework difficulties, and school room reaction approach content material support teachers examine conceptual knowing and problem-solving talents, whereas new animations and pictures aid visible studying. moreover, Houghton Mifflin bargains implementation prone via our TeamUP software to aid teachers and scholars get the main out of the textual content and its vitamins.
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Additional resources for Chemistry
Trailing zeros are zeros at the right end of the number. They are signiﬁcant only if the number contains a decimal point. 00 ϫ 102 has three signiﬁcant ﬁgures. The number one hundred written as 100. also has three signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 3. Exact numbers. Many times calculations involve numbers that were not obtained using measuring devices but were determined by counting: 10 experiments, 3 apples, 8 molecules. Such numbers are called exact numbers. They can be assumed to have an inﬁnite number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures.
However, note that the average value measured using the buret is signiﬁcantly different from 25 mL. Thus this graduated cylinder is not very accurate. It produces a systematic error (in this case, the indicated result is low for each measurement). 11. 5 Signiﬁcant Figures and Calculations Calculating the ﬁnal result for an experiment usually involves adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing the results of various types of measurements. Since it is very important that the uncertainty in the ﬁnal result is known correctly, we have developed rules for counting the signiﬁcant ﬁgures in each number and for determining the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures in the ﬁnal result.
After a few experiments with the various possibilities, you probably will be able to select the best way. What you are doing in solving this everyday problem is applying the same process that scientists use to study nature. The ﬁrst thing you did was collect relevant data. Then you made a prediction, and then you tested it by trying it out. This process contains the fundamental elements of science. 1. Making observations (collecting data) 2. Making a prediction (formulating a hypothesis) 3. 4 The fundamental steps of the scientiﬁc method.