Canal and River LevГ©es by PAVOL PETER (Eds.)


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00 to 1 on 5 for bigger structures. e. the mass of solids only per unit volume of soil. The dry density after compaction depends on the type of soil, the water content and the work done by the compaction equipment. The compaction characteristics of a soil can be assessed by means of standard laboratory tests. In general use are in Czechoslovakia, CSN 72 1015, 73 6850 and in Great Britain, BS 1377. 5 kg mass falling freely through 305 mm, the soil is compacted in three equal layers, each layer receiving 25 blows with the rammer.

16 from Hvorslev (1949) and Lambe and Whitman (1969), respectively, notes a number of arrangements which can be used to measure the permeability of soil in the. field by different methods — adopted to measure horizontal (kh) or vertical (kv) permeability of the given stratum. The mean coefficient of permeability (km) can be determined by appropriate arrangement of the field test (B, C ) or calculated by means of kh and Κ km V'k\\ky. 5. All dimensions of intake (sample) diameter ( D ) , standpipe (d), length ( L ) and piezometer head (H) are in cm, the time in s, flow of 1 _1 water (v) in cm s" .

E. mica, diatoms, increase compressibility and produce an "elastic" silt. Work by machine — placing and compaction — can be inconvenient, particularly in rainy seasons. Gravels and sands have essentially the same engineering properties, and differ only in degree. They are easy to compact, little affected by moisture, not subject to frost action. Gravels are generally more perviously stable, resistant to erosion, than sands. With uniform sand ( C u < 3 ) , there is a danger of liquefaction in the loose state, as reported later.

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