Being Humans: Anthropological Universality and Particularity by Neil Roughley

By Neil Roughley

Kant claimed that the valuable subject matters of philosophy all converge on one query: used to be ist der Mensch? beginning with the most declare that conceptions of the human play an important structuring position in conception development, the members during this volume(renowned students from a number of disciplines - philosophy, anthropology, psychology, literary stories) examine the jobs that conceptions of the human play either in philosophy and in different human and social sciences.

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Transition between nature and culture; and thirdly that this precultural Comments on Justin Stagl's Paper 39 or transitional status explains the impossibility of integrative theory. H o w can the first and second claims appear together? I would guess in the following way: if, with Aristotle, we conceive "nature" as that realm of phenomena which exists independently of any intervention on the part of human beings (Phys. ) and culture is seen as what is constructed by human beings, then the claim that cultural universals are in some sense natural would be the claim that there are certain forms of construction of the human environment about which human beings in general have no choice.

It thus allows for the conception of culture and society as a "third world" between the natural and the supernatural (Niedermann 1941; Leopold 1980). "Anthropologia est doctrina humanae naturae. H u m a n a natura est geminae mundanae, spiritualis et corporeae, in u n u m hyphistamenon unitae, particeps essentia". Cf. Diem 1962 and Marquard 1965. 28 Justin Stagi "Philosophical anthropology" was taught as a special subject at German Protestant universities until the early 19th century. Its tenets were derived from speculation, yet it supported them with empirical findings from the natural and moral sciences.

And the prohibition of incest, which can be seen as the corner stone of the family and kinship systems and thus of all other institutions. It is easier, however, to start such a list than to finish it, since most "cultural universals" are empirically contested. And it is near to impossible to integrate them all into one theoretical concept. All such attempts from Wissler (1923) to Malinowski (1944) and Rudolph/Tschohl (1977) have so far proved abortive. I think it is Claude Lévi-Strauss who can show us why.

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