By David A. Ucko (Auth.)
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2) 22 How is the metric system simpler than the English system? " 24 Arrange in order of increasing size: micro-, kilo-, centi-, mega-, deci-. 25 How many times larger is the prefix kilo- compared to milli-? 26 Why is measurement needed to describe matter or energy? 3) 27 Why is exponential notation useful? 28 The sun is about 93 million miles from Earth. Express this distance using exponential notation. 29 Use exponential notation to express the number of pages in this book. 0000009843 inches long, what is its length in exponential notation?
6 Volume is a m e a s u r e of the a m o u n t of space occupied by matter. The units of volume used by chemists are t h e liter (L), a n d t h e milliliter (mL) or cubic centimeter ( c m ) . 7 Energy is the ability or capacity to d o w o r k , that is, to force matter to m o v e . Energy c a n exist in many different forms, a n d c a n be converted from o n e form t o another. H o w e v e r , t h e total a m o u n t of energy always remains the s a m e . 8 M e a s u r e m e n t s must always b e e x p r e s s e d with t h e p r o p e r n u m b e r of significant figures.
B e c a u s e this n u m b e r has only one decimal place, the a n s w e r cannot be stated with any m o r e certainty than o n e decimal place and must be rounded-off as indicated. 523 (which has three decimal places). Therefore, the a n s w e r is limited to t w o decimal places. W h e n we round-off results from multiplication or division, our answer should have the same n u m b e r of significant figures (not decimal places) as the m e a s u r e m e n t with the fewest significant figures. 10 CALCULATIONS USING EXPONENTIAL NOTATION In this e x a m p l e , t h e m e a s u r e m e n t with fewer significant figures is 2 .