[Article] Insights on bias and information in group-level by Sheppard L.

By Sheppard L.

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P. Gor‘kov: Sov. Phys. JETP 61(4), 843 (1985). (Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 88, 1412 (1985)) 11, 14, 17, 21 2. P. Hirschfeld, D. Vollhardt, P. W¨olfle: Solid State Commun. 59(3), 111 (1986) 22, 50, 98 3. J. Hirschfeld, P. W¨olfle, D. Einzel: Phys. Rev. B 37, 83 (1988) 22, 50 4. J. Buchholtz, G. Zwicknagl: Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5788 (1981) 22, 36 5. J. K. A. Sauls: J. Low Temp. Phys. 102, 367 (1996) 22, 74, 75, 91, 92, 93, 125 6. J. K. A. Sauls, D. Rainer: Phys. Rev. B 53(22), 15 147 (1996) 22 7. E. Volovik: JETP Lett.

Spectroscopic information on basic excitations of the metal like phonons, magnons, etc. The conductance of the contact in the ballistic regime can be calculated with the help of the Landauer formula [37] for the conductance G= 2e2 2e2 Tr{t † t} = h h Tα . 6) α t is the transmission matrix which describes the transmission of N electrons through a contact from mode i of the wave function into the mode j with probability ti j . T α is the transmission probability of the α-th scattering channel after diagonalizing the transmission matrix.

There exist G. Goll: Unconventional Superconductors STMP 214, 35–54 (2006) c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006 36 5 Probing the Energy Gap several monographs which give a general insight into the wide range of tunnelling spectroscopy especially on ordinary superconductors [1, 2, 3]. In a simple phenomenological model, the net current flowing across a normal metal-superconductor junction at applied bias V is calculated by considering the transition probability of electrons crossing from the normal metal into the superconductor and vice versa.

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