By Clement Greenberg
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"Clement Greenberg is, across the world, the best-known American artwork critic popularly thought of to be the guy who positioned American forefront portray and sculpture at the international map. . . . a huge booklet for everybody drawn to sleek portray and sculpture. "—The manhattan instances
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For the Guide to Electioneering attributed to Quintus Cicero, see Chapter 4. For the poets Virgil, Horace, Propertius and Ovid, see Chapter 18. Background Rome and Italy The fertile plain of Latium was chosen as the site of Rome. Volcanic activity had produced a group of seven hills which were easy to defend and an island in the middle of the River Tiber made it easy to bridge. There was also good access to the sea. The ﬁrst settlers of Latium were Indo-European Italic tribes who entered Italy in several waves between 1500 and 1000 BC, although there were other civilisations already in Italy, the Greeks to the south and the Etruscans in Etruria to the north.
Many religious and political aspects of Rome derived from the period of Etruscan dominance which ended in the sixth century BC. In Roman myth Aeneas, son of Venus, who had ﬂed the siege of Troy, settled in Latium and became the founder of a line of kings. His descendants Romulus and Remus, the twin sons of Mars, decided to found a city but quarrelled; Romulus killed Remus, and became the ﬁrst king of Rome. Six further kings followed, of whom the last three were Etruscan. They became increasingly despotic and the seventh, Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown by the people, led by Brutus.
In 133 Tiberius Gracchus became a tribune and introduced a controversial Land Bill, the lex agraria. It proposed that a three-man commission should be appointed to allocate portions of public land to landless citizens, who would pay a small rent. Their plots could not be sold and therefore could not fall into the hands of predatory larger landowners as in the past. Rome would reverse the decline in the number of peasant farmers, which would ease the problems of military recruitment and, in addition, many of the unemployed in Rome would be removed and rehoused.