Archipelag GU?ag: 1918-1956 by Aleksander So??enicyn

By Aleksander So??enicyn

Archipelag GUŁAG: 1918-1956, próba dochodzenia literackiego (Архипелаг ГУЛАГ) – najważniejsze, trzytomowe dzieło Aleksandra Sołżenicyna, napisane w formie relacji historycznej, powstałe w latach 1958-1968. Na Zachodzie wydano je po raz pierwszy w 1973, zaś w Związku Radzieckim oficjalnie w 1989 (wcześniej funkcjonowało w obiegu podziemnym).

Jest ono wymownym świadectwem zbrodniczej działalności systemu komunistycznego w ZSRR. Autor, wykorzystując swoje doświadczenia, pokazał rozwój i rozprzestrzenianie się systemu więziennictwa radzieckiego, którego celem pierwotnym miała być "eliminacja wrogich klas społecznych". W konsekwencji powstał cały "archipelag" obozów koncentracyjnych i obozów morderczej pracy, nazwany od instytucji zarządzającej (Gławnoje Uprawlenije Łagierej) Archipelagiem GUŁag. Dzieło jest świadectwem stopniowego odzierania człowieka z jego godności i zmuszania do niewolniczej pracy pod bardzo wzniosłymi hasłami.

Na Zachodzie książka ta wywołała ogromne poruszenie, które doprowadziło do rozwiania iluzji na temat systemu komunistycznego oraz osłabienia wpływów komunistów zachodnioeuropejskich.

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13. Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003). 14. : Stanford University Press, 2010). 15. Economics also played a role. : Harvard University Press, 2005), 205–36. 16. Jan T. Gross, Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland’s Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, 2nd ed. : Princeton University Press, 2002). 17. Dieter Pohl, Nationalsozialistische Judenverfolgung in Ostgalizien 1941–1944: Organisation und Durchführung eines staatlichen Massenverbrechens (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1996).

Omer Bartov, Erased: Vanishing Traces of Jewish Galicia in Present-Day Ukraine (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007). 39. For a comprehensive survey of Eastern Europe’s politics of Holocaust memory, see JohnPaul Himka and Joanna B. , Bringing the Dark Past to Light: The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Europe (Nebraska University Press, forthcoming spring 2013). 40. mfa. For one critique, see Ronald Grigor Suny, “Truth in Telling: Reconciling Realities in the Genocide of the Ottoman Armenians,” American Historical Review 114: 4 (2009): 930–46.

Stadler is Notschibikitschibi. Joseph my servant is Sagadarata. 18 Mozart spoke German in Vienna and also in Prague, but on the way to Prague, traveling through the province of Bohemia, he must have heard Czech being spoken, an incomprehensible concoction of alien sounds to his Austrian ear, and he responded with gibbering linguistic delight. While Niemcewicz lamented the transformation of Czechs into Germans, Mozart enthusiastically transformed himself and his friends into pseudo-Oriental (Schabla Pumfa), pseudo-Slavic (Schomanntzky), supremely nonsensical aliens.

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