By Adam Brown (auth.), A. V. Bridgwater (eds.)
This booklet presents an account of the cutting-edge in thermochemical biomass conversion and arises from the 3rd convention in a sequence backed through the overseas strength Agency's Bioenergy contract. primary and utilized examine themes are incorporated, reflecting contemporary advances in addition to demonstration and advertisement innovation.
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Additional info for Advances in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion
Of special concern will be compounds classified as toxic in the proposed Title ill Clean Air Act, including hydrochloric acid, ammonia, benzene, and heavy metals. The ultimate disposal of ash will also be addressed. A summary of the environmental issues is shown in Figure 4. TIlERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO LIQUID FUELS The transportation fuels situation in the United States is in a state of flux, mainly because of the impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA'90). Under the regulations controlling national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), especially Title II of CAAA'90, many areas of the United States have to comply with ozone and carbon monoxide controls that call for reformulated gasolines that contain oxygenates and have reduced vapor pressure and aromatic contents.
These 39 Renewab Ie MeOH EIOH Biomass RDF • NREL vortex reactor Catalytic cracking Olefins Petroleum refinery Stage 0 f deveIopment PDU at NREL EDU at Interchem • Industry provides catalysts. • NREL evaluates catalysts. • Industry evaluates products. • Catalytic cracker reactor technology mature and available. Reformulated gasoline Figure 6. Biomass olefins for petroleum refineries (Note: POU =process development unit; EOU =engineering development unit) changes, which are a function of season, harvest mode, and storage time, are being quantitatively assessed.
The current biomass routes to both fuels and electricity that are under consideration in the United States are shown in Figure 1. Ethanol produced from com (Zea maize) is already a significant alternative fuel in the United States, however, research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is mainly focused on the use of low-cost lignocellulosics for its production. The figure also shows the central role that two thermochemical technologies, gasification and fast pyrolysis, play in biofuels development.