By Federico De Romanis, Marco Maiuro
Across the Ocean comprises 9 essays, every one devoted to a key query within the heritage of the exchange kinfolk among the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean from Antiquity to the Early smooth interval: the position of the nation within the crimson Sea alternate, Roman coverage within the pink Sea, the functionality of Trajan s Canal, the pepper exchange, the pearl exchange, the Nabataean middlemen, using gold in historic India, the consistent renewal of the Indian Ocean ports of exchange, and the increase and dying of the VOC."
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Additional info for Across the Ocean: Nine Essays on Indo-Mediterranean Trade (Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition)
3; Zos. 1). They must have taken it again, since Diocletian recaptured it from them in 296. We do not know the chronology of the background to the capture of Coptos, but the abandonment of the route to Myos Hormos and the concentration of resources on the Berenice–Coptos route may well be an indication that these routes had become unsafe well before 279. 65 However, the port of Berenice functioned into the first half of the sixth century,66 although not necessarily under direct Byzantine control.
Cuvigny 2003c, 356. 64 The third century evidently saw increased insecurity in the Eastern Desert in the face of incursions by the Blemmyes, a desert tribe from the south. By 279/280 the Blemmyes had taken Coptos, from where Probus then drove them out (sha Prob. 3; Zos. 1). They must have taken it again, since Diocletian recaptured it from them in 296. We do not know the chronology of the background to the capture of Coptos, but the abandonment of the route to Myos Hormos and the concentration of resources on the Berenice–Coptos route may well be an indication that these routes had become unsafe well before 279.
The evidence for big ships involved in the pepper trade from India in the first-third centuries ce is collected by De Romanis (in this volume, ad nn. 35; and a graffito from Alagankulam/Tamil Nadu discussed by Tchernia 2011a). 21 De Romanis 1996, 24–27, maps 2–5. See also Cooper 2011. 100–106. 40 aubert Clysma and, in addition, up a more or less dried-up canal. The difficulty and the delay incurred by these unavoidable circumstances may very well have been the decisive factor in keeping the desert road open over the centuries.