By Bernice Glatzer-Rosenthal, Martha Bohachevsky-Chomiak
The non secular revival that's sweeping the Soviet Union this present day had its genesis within the non secular renaissance of the early twentieth century. In either circumstances, it was once lay intellectuals, dissatisfied with simplistic positivism and materialism, who tailored Russian orthodoxy to fashionable existence. Their rules reverberated, not just in faith and philosophy, yet in artwork, literature, portray, theater and picture. Banned through the Soviet govt in 1922, the writings of the non secular renaissance have been rediscovered within the Brezhnev period by way of a brand new new release of Soviet intellectuals upset with Marxism. Circulating from hand handy in unlawful typewritten variations (samizdat), they exerted an evergrowing impression on Soviet society, from the very best right down to usual humans. lower than the hot coverage of glasnost, the govt itself is at present reprinting their works. the decisions integrated during this quantity replicate the profundity and breadth in their proposal and are awarded in English for the 1st time. the popularity of the common desire and value of religious values and beliefs united this differently heterogeneous crew and bears witness to the variety in their method of the elemental problems with the human situation. The centrality of those lay intellectuals' issues transcends the specifics of the ancient scenario in early twentieth century Russia and makes their writings proper to the common human situation. so as of visual appeal, the decisions are: VLADIMIR SOLOVYOV, The Enemy from the East, The Russian nationwide excellent; NIKOLAI GROT, at the precise projects of Philosophy; SERGEI DIAGHILEV, advanced Questions; VASILLY V. ROZANOV, On Sweetest Jesus and the sour culmination of the realm; NIKOLAI BERDIAEV, Socialism as faith; SERGEI BULGAKOV, An pressing activity; VIACHISLAV IVANOV, drawback of Individualism, GEORGII CHULKOV, On Mystical Anarchism; DMITRI S. MEREZHKOVSKY, Revolution and faith, The Jewish query As a Russian query; GEORGII FLOROVSKY, on the planet of Quests and Wanderings; PAVEL NOVGORODTSEV, The Essence of the Russian Orthodox recognition; PETR STRUVE, The Intelligentsia and the nationwide Face; ANDREI BELY, Revolution and tradition; ALEKSANDR BLOK, Catiline; EVGENY TRUBETSKOI, The Bolshevist Utopia and the non secular Movement.
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Extra info for A Revolution of the Spirit: Crisis of Value in Russia, 1890-1924
The Bolsheviks considered religion the major ideological prop of the bourgeois order, but during the Civil War they attacked the Church rather than religion per se, partly because many religious radicals supported them and partly because they did not want to antagonize the populace. Typically, anti-clerical measures were justified on political or economic grounds. Moreover, many Bolsheviks, including Lenin, assumed that bourgeois culture, values, and attitudes, including religion, would die out naturally in a socialist society.
Although the intelligentsia presumed that only those who shared their materialistic presuppositions could have the public good as their goal, and that scholarly activity was tantamount to desertion of the common people, that, of course, was not the case. Solovyov, for all his mystical and metaphysical terminology, was interested not so much in description as in a blueprint for change. 7 He spent most of his adult life trying to develop an all-encompassing philosophy that would determine and justify the future course of humanity and fulfill its cosmic purpose.
Dostoevsky's death that year provided the impetus. Solovyov viewed the universe as an organic whole, of potentially the same substance as God. The self-realization of each person, freely expressed, resulted in the actualization of the whole, which would inevitably become perfect for it was such in essence. The first drafts of Solovyov's plan envisaged Russia, its government, and its Church as three manifestations of God's grand design. This was by no means tantamount to the acceptance of the status quo in Russia; on the contrary, it meant change in conformity with his ideals.