A Primer of Diffusion Problems by Richard Ghez

By Richard Ghez

The one straight forward textual content to supply an entire advent to diffusion thought and a few of the analytical and numerical tools of answer. offers an built-in set of real-life difficulties taken in general from metallurgy and machine processing, and gives an outline of the answer of diffusion difficulties in functional circumstances, with transparent causes of the interrelationships among mathematical ideas, and the underlying physics and chemistry. Covers oxidation conception, errors capabilities, Laplace transforms, and similarity, a subject matter of present learn curiosity. additionally covers Green's services and vital equations, not often mentioned in introductory texts.

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96 O I O R XH R' NEt3, DMF, 60°C O R' X = O, NTs O 16 examples 65-89% N Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (5 mol%), CuI (13 mol%) N X R 1) Et3BH, THF, -78°C 2) TsOH, toluene, reflux R' N 4 examples 58-81% R' O X = O, NTs 12 examples 57-77% X R Pd-catalyzed synthesis of lactams. 56 Pd-catalyzed coupling of 2-chlorophenols with alkynes. 56): Typical experimental procedure for the synthesis of 2-substituted benzo[b]furans. 50 mmol) in a two-neck flask under argon. 53 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at reflux for 45 min and then cooled.

The carbonickelations of alkynes and functionalization of the resulting vinylnickel moiety have been performed efficiently in a nickel-catalyzed domino cyclization–condensation process. This reaction, which does not require the preparation of any other organometallic reagent, proceeds only by exo-dig cyclization. This method constitutes a onepot synthesis of substituted dihydrobenzofurans, chromans, isochromans, indoles, or indanes and the desired products were obtained in good yields and high stereoselectivity.

46 C4H9 NTs Pd-catalyzed cyclization of 2-iodophenols with 1,3-dienes. I R 56% X X = O, NAc, NTs CH2O, CH2NTs 14 examples 24-87% 63% C4H9 O R' Pd(OAc)2 (5 mol%), PPh3 (5 mol%) R' R 37 R5 R2 R4 Pd(dba)2 (5 mol%), DPPE (5 mol%) Ag2CO3, 1,4-dioxane, H2O, 100°C R O R3 R1 15 examples 40-100% Pd-catalyzed cyclization of 2-iodoaryl acetates with 1,3-dienes. 0 mmol) were added. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at 100 1C for 24 h, cooled to room temperature, and filtered, then the filtrate was concentrated to give a yellow residue.

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